The articles listed here are published and printed in peer-reviewed academic social science research journals.

The study of workplace bullying began approximately 20 years ago, however has only very recently caught legislative attention. Most countries, including the US, do not have laws against this negative behavior, damaging as it is to employees and the organization.


Ames, D.R., Rose, P., & Anderson, C.P. (2006). The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 440-450.

Aquino, K., & Douglas, S. (2003).Identity threat and antisocial behavior in organizations: The moderating effects of individual differences, aggressive modeling, and hierarchical statusOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90, 195-208.

Archer, J., & Coyne, S.M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational,and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 212-230.

Ashforth, B.E. (1994). Petty tyranny in organizations.Human Relations, 47, 755-778.

Ashforth, B.E. (1997). Petty tyranny in organizations: A preliminary examination of antecedents and consequences. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 14, 126-140.

Avery-Leaf, S., Cascardi, M., O’Leary, K., & Cano, A. (1997). Efficacy of a dating violence prevention program on attitudes justifying aggression. Journal of Adolescent Health, 21, 11-17.

Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., & Caprara, G.V. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 364-374.

Baron R.A., & Neuman, J.H. (1996). Workplace violence and workplace aggression: Evidence on their relative frequency and potential causes. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 161-173.

Baumeister, R.F., Smart, L., & Boden, J.M. (1996).Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem.Psychological Review, 103(1), 5-33.

Beatty, M.J., Heisel, A.D., Hall, A.E., Levine, T.R., & LaFrance, B.H. (2002). What can we learn from the study of twins about genetic and environmental influences on interpersonal affiliation, aggressiveness, and social anxiety? A meta-analytic study. Communication Monographs, 69, 1-18.

Bennett, R.J., & Robinson, S.L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 349-360.

Björkqvist, K., Osterman, K., & Hjelt-Back, M. (1994). Aggression among university employees. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 173-184.

Brodsky, C. M. (1976). The harassed worker. Lexington, MA: D.C. Health & Company.

Buckley, K.E., Winkel, R.E., & Leary, M.R. (2004). Emotional and behavioral responses to interpersonal rejection: Anger, sadness, hurt, and aggression. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 14-28.

Bushman, B.J., & Baumeister, R.F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 219-229.

Buss, A.H. (1961). The psychology of aggression. New York: Wiley.

Canary, D. J., Spitzberg, B. H., & Semic, B. A. (1998). The experience and expression of anger in interpersonal settings. In P. A. Andersen & L. K. Guerrero (Eds.),Handbook of communication and emotion: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 189-213). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Cauffman, E., Feldman, S.S., Jensen, L.A., & Arnett, J.J., (2000). The (un)acceptability of violence against peers and dates. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 652-673.

Cooper, C., Faragher, B., & Hoel, H. (2004). Bullying is detrimental to health, but all bullying behaviours are not necessarily equally damaging. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32, 367-387.

Cowie, H., Naylor, P., Rivers, I., Smith, P.K., & Pereira, B. (2002). Measuring workplace bullying. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7, 33-51.

Dailey, R., Lee, C., & Spitzberg, B.H. (2007). Psychological abuse and communicative aggression. In B.H. Spitzberg & W.R. Cupach (Eds.), The dark side of interpersonal communication (2nd ed., pp. 297-326). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Dekovic, M., & Gerris, J.R.M. (1994). Developmental analysis of social cognitive and behavioral differences between popular and rejected children. Journal of Applied Development Psychology, 15, 367-386.

Diamond, M.A., & Allcorn, S. (1984). Psychological barriers to personal responsibility. Organizational Dynamics, 12(4), 66-77.

Douglas, S.C. , & Martinko, M.J. (2001).Exploring the role of individual differences in the prediction of workplace aggressionJournal of Applied Psychology, 86, 547-559.

Dupré, K.E., & Barling, J (2006). Predicting and preventing supervisory workplace aggression. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 13-26.

Dutton, D.G. (1998). The abusive personality. New York: Guilford.

Dziuban, C. D., & Shirkey, E. C. (1974). When is a correlation matrix appropriate for factor analysis? Some decision rules. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 368-361.

Einarsen, S. (1999). The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20, 16-27.

Einarsen, S., & Hoel, H. (2001, May). The Negative Acts Questionnaire: Development, validation and revision of a measure of bullying at work. Paper presented at the 10thEuropean Congress on Work and Organisational Psychology, Prague.

Einarsen, S., & Raknes, B.I. (1997). Harassment at work and the victimization of men. Violence and Victims, 12, 247-263.

Einarsen, S., Raknes, B.I., & Matthiesen, S.B. (1994). Bullying and harassment at work and their relationships to work environment quality: An exploratory study.European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 4, 381-401.

Einarsen, S., & Skogstad, A. (1996). Bullying at work: Epidemiological findings in public and private organizations. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5, 185-201.

Feldman, S., & Cauffman, E. (1999). Your cheatin’ heart: Attitudes, behaviors, and correlates of sexual betrayal in late adolescents. Journal of Research of Adolescence, 9, 227-252.

Griffin, R.W., & Lopez, Y.P. (2005). “Bad behavior” in organizations: A review and typology for future research.Journal of Management, 31, 988-1005.

Harano, R.M., Peck, R.C., & McBride, R.S. (1975). Prediction of accident liability through biographical data and psychometric tests. Journal of Safety Research, 7(1), 16-52.

Hays, R.D., Hayashi, T., & Stewart, A.L. (1989). A five-item measure of socially desirable response set.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 49, 629-636.

Hearn, J., & Parkin, W. (2001). Gender, sexuality and violence in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hendin, H.M., & Cheek, J.M. (1997). Assessing hypersensitive narcissism: A reexamination of Murray’s narcism scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 588-599.

Hess, J.A. (2003). Maintaining undesired relationships. In D.J. Canary & M. Dainton (Eds.), Maintaining relationships through communication: Relational, contextual, and cultural variations (pp. 103-126). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hockenberry, S.L. (1995). Dyadic violence, shame and narcissism. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 31, 301-325.

Infante, D.A. (1987). Aggressiveness. In J.C. McCroskey & J.A. Daly (Eds.), Personality and Interpersonal Communication (pp. 157-192). Beverly Hills: Sage.

Infante, D.A, Anderson, C.M., Martin, M.M., Herington, A.D., & Kim, J.K. (1993). Subordinate’ satisfaction and perceptions of superiors’ compliance-gaining tactics, argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness, and style.Management Communication Quarterly, 6, 307-326.

Infante, D.A., & Gordon, W.I. (1986). Superiors’ argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness as predictors of subordinates’ satisfaction. Human Communication Research, 12, 117-125.

Infante, D.A., Riddle, B.L., Horvath, C.L, & Tumlin, S.A. (1992). Verbal aggressiveness: Messages and reasons.Communication Quarterly, 40, 116-126.

Infante, D.A., Trebing, J.D., Shepherd, P.E., & Seeds, D.E. (1984). The relationship of argumentativeness to verbal aggression. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 50, 67-77.

Infante, D.A., & Wigley, C.J. III (1986). Verbal aggressiveness: An interpersonal model and measure.Communication Monographs, 53, 61-69.

James, L.R., McIntyre, M.D., Glisson, C.A., Bowler, J.L., & Mitchell, T.R. (2004). The conditional reasoning measurement system for aggression: An overview.Human Performance, 17, 271-295.

James, L.R., McIntyre, M.D., Glisson, C.A., Green, P.D., Patton, T.W., LeBreton, J.M., et al. (2005). A conditional reasoning measure for aggression. Organizational Research Methods, 8, 69-99.

Jennifer, D., Cowie, H., & Ananiadou, K. (2003). Perceptions and experience of workplace bullying in five different working populations. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 489-496.

Keashly, L., & Jagatic, K. (2003). By any other name: American perspectives on workplace bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C.L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace: International perspectives in research and practice (pp. 31-61). London: Taylor & Francis.

Kinney, T.A. (1994). An inductively derived typology of verbal aggression and its association to distress. Human Communication Research, 21, 183-222.

Kipnis, D. (1976). The powerholders. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Leary, M.R., Twenge, J.M., & Quinlivan, E. (2006).Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggressionPersonality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 111-132.

Lutgen-Sandvik, P. (2003). The communicative style of employee emotional abuse: Generation and regeneration of workplace mistreatment. Management Communication Quarterly, 16, 471-501.

Lutgen-Sandvik, P. (2006). Take this job and…: Quitting and other forms of resistance to workplace bullying.Communication Monographs, 73, 406-433.

Lutgen-Sandvik, P., Tracy, S.J., & Alberts, K.K. (2007). Burned by bullying in the American workplace: Prevalence, perception, degree, and impact. Journal of Management Studies, 44, 837-862.

MacDonald, G., & Leary, M.R. (2005). Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 202-223.

Martin, M.M., & Anderson, C..M. (1997). Aggressive communication traits: How similar are young adults and their parents in argumentativeness, assertiveness, and verbal aggressiveness. Western Journal of Communication, 61, 299-314.

Martin, M.M., Anderson, C.M., & Horvath, C.L. (1996). Feelings about verbal aggression: Justification for sending and hurt from receiving verbally aggressive messages.Communication Research Reports, 13, 19-26.

Mattice, C., & Spitzberg, B. (2008). Bullies in business: Self-reports of tactics and motives. Poster session presented at the 6th International Conference on Workplace Bullying, Montreal, Canada.

Mattice, C.M., Spitzberg, B.H., & Hellweg, S.A. (2008).Investigating workplace bullies: Perpetrator tactics and motives. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Mattice, C. (2006). Comprehensive model of workplace bullies. Unpublished manuscript, San Diego State University.

McCullough, M.E., Bellah, C.G., Kilpatrick, S.D., & Johnson, J.L. (2001). Vengefulness: Relationships with forgiveness, rumination, well-being, and the big five.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 601-610.

Mikkelsen, E.G., & Einarsen, S. (2001). Bullying in Danish work life: Prevalence and health correlates. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 393-413.

Mitchell, M.S., & Ambrose, M.L. (2007). Abusive supervision and workplace deviance and the moderating effects of negative reciprocity beliefs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1159-1168.

Mitchell, M.S., & Ambrose, M.L. Abusive supervision and workplace deviance and the moderating effects of negative reciprocity beliefs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1159-1168.

Neuman, J.H., & Baron, R.A. (1998). Workplace violence and workplace aggression: Evidence concerning specific forms, potential causes, and preferred targetsJournal of Management, 24, 391-419.

Olweus, D. (1984). Bullying among school children in Scandinavia. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 166-166.

Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren. In I. Rubin & D. Pepler (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 411-447). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Olweus, D. (1995). Bullying or peer abuse at school: Facts and intervention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(6), 196-200.

Olweus, D. (2003). Bully/victim problems in school: Basic facts and an effective intervention programme. In

S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C.L. Cooper (Eds.).Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace: International perspectives in research and practice (pp. 62-78). London: Taylor & Francis.

Pacanowsky, M.E., & O’Donnell-Trujillo, N. (1983). Organizational communication as cultural performance.Communication Monographs, 50, 126-147.

Paulhus, D.L. (1984). Two-component models of socially desirable responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 598-609.

Penny, L.M., & Spector, P.E. (2002). Narcissism and counterproductive work behavior: Do bigger egos mean bigger problems? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 126-134.

Porhola, M., Karhunen, S., & Rainivaara, S. (2006). Bullying at school and in the workplace: A challenge for communication research. In C. Beck (Ed.).Communication Yearbook 30 (pp. 249-301).

Randall, P. (1997). Adult bullying: Perpetrators and victims. New York, Routledge.

Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890-902.

Rayner, C. (1997). The incidence of workplace bullying.Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 7, 199-208.

Rayner, C., & Hoel, H. (1997). A summary review of literature relating to workplace bullying. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 7, 181-191.

Rayner, C., Hoel, H., & Cooper, C.L. (2002). Workplace bullying: What we know, who is to blame, and what can we do? New York: Taylor & Francis.

Rayner, C., & Keashly, L. (2005). Bullying at work: A perspective from Britain and North America. In S. Fox & P.E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive work behavior: Investigations of actors and targets (pp. 271-296). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Rayner, C., Sheehan, M., & Barker, M. (1999). Theoretical approaches to the study of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20, 11-15.

Salin, D. (2001). Prevalence and forms of bullying among business professionals: A comparison of two different strategies for measuring bullying. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 425-441.

Salin, D. (2003). Ways of explaining workplace bullying: A review of enabling, motivating and precipitating structures and processes in the work environment. Human Relations, 56, 1213-1232.

Seabright, M.A., & Schminke, M. (2002). Immoral imagination and revenge in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 38(1-2), 19-31.

Sheehan, M. (1999). Workplace bullying: Responding with some emotional intelligence. International Journal of Manpower, 20, 57-69.

Sheehan, M., Barker, M., & Rayner, C. (1999). Applying strategies for dealing with workplace bullying.International Journal of Manpower, 20, 50-56.

Spitzberg, B.H. (1997). Violence in intimate relationships. In. W.R. Cupach & D.J. Canary (Eds.), Competence in interpersonal conflict (pp. 174-201). New York: McGraw–Hill.

Tafoya, M. A., & Spitzberg, B. H. (2007). The dark side of infidelity: Its nature, prevalence, and communicative functions. In B. H. Spitzberg & W. R. Cupach (Eds.), The dark side of interpersonal communication (2nd ed., pp. 201-242). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Tepper, B.J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 178-190.

Tracy, S.J., Lutgen-Sandvik, P., & Alberts, J.K. (2006). Nightmares, demons and slaves: Exploring the painful metaphors of workplace bullying. Management Communication Quarterly, 20, 148-185.

Twenge, J.M., Beaumeister, R.F., DeWall, C., Ciarocco, N.J., & Bartels, J.M. (2007). Social exclusion decreases prosocial power. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 56-66.

Twenge, J.M., & Campbell, W.K. (2003). “Isn’t it fun to get the respect that we’re going to deserve?” Narcissism, social rejection, and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 261-272.

Twenge, J.M., Ciarocco, N.J., Cuervo, D., & Baumeister, R.F. (2003, October). Social exclusion reduces prosocial behavior. Paper presented at the Preconference on the Self, annual meeting of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, Boston, MA.

Williams, K.D., Cheung, C.K., & Choi, W. (2000). CyberOstracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 748-762.

Yoshimura, S. (2007). The communication of revenge: On the viciousness, virtues, and vitality of vengeful behavior in interpersonal relationships. In B. H. Spitzberg & W. R. Cupach (Eds.), The dark side of interpersonal communication (2nd ed., pp. 277-298). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Zapf, D. (1999). Organizational, work group related and personal causes of mobbing/bullying at work.International Journal of Manpower, 20, 70-84.